Deforestation is cleaning Earth's forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land.Deforestation has many negative effects on the environment.The most serious impact is loss of habitat for millions of species.70% of Earth's land animals and plants live in forests and many cannot survive because of deforestation which destroys their homes.The quickest solution to deforestation would be to stop cutting down trees. The cutting that does occur should be balanced by planting of enough young trees to replace the older ones.
Factors leading to Deforestation :-
1.Conversion of forests and woodlands to agriculture land to feed growing number of peoples.
2.The cutting down of trees for lumber that is used for building materials, furniture and paper products.
3.Forests are cut down in order to accommodate expanding urban areas.
4.Forests are cut down in order to clear land for growing crops.
5.Trees are cut down in order to use as firewood or turned into charcoal, which are used for cooking and heating purpose.
6.Forests are cut down in order to make highways and roads.
Effects of Deforestation :-
Climate change : Trees act as a major storage depot for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates,fats and proteins that make up trees.When deforestation occurs many of the trees are burnt, which results in releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide, this in turn leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Erosion of Soil : When forests are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and infertile due to lost of volatile nutrients such as Nitrogen.
Flooding and Drought : One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains.When forests are cut down, the regulation of water is disrupted, which leads to floods and droughts in the affected area.
Disruption of water cycle : Trees contribute in a large way in maintaining the water cycle.They drew up water through their roots, which is then released into the atmosphere. Deforestation disrupts the water cycle by reducing the area's ability to store water. It also disrupts the water cycle by changing weather patterns and also causes rainfall in one area of the world, while causing drought in another part.